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Epilepsy is a condition caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain that produces symptoms such as confusion, staring spells, and most commonly, episodes of involuntary shaking (seizures), which may be followed by periods of unconsciousness.


Dementia is a group of symptoms affecting memory, thinking and communication associated with many neurological conditions. Symptoms vary depending on the part of the brain that is damaged. It can affect your judgment, cause confusion and forgetfulness, and disrupt your daily activities.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, a group of brain disorders that cause impairment in mental abilities, such as memory and reasoning. When AD affects individuals in their 30s, 40s, and 50s it is called early onset AD.

Brain Ischemia

Cerebral ischemia, also called cerebrovascular or brain ischemia, occurs when there is a shortage of oxygen or blood flow to your brain. This occurs due to a blockage or bleeding in the arteries that supply blood to your brain.

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injuries occur when a sudden trauma, such as a violent blow or jolt to the head, causes brain damage.

Brain Aneurysm

A brain aneurysm is the ballooning of a weak area on the wall of an artery in the brain. An aneurysm can leak or rupture causing blood to escape into the brain.

Brain Metastases

Brain metastases are malignant tumors (abnormal mass of tissue) that initiate as cancer elsewhere in the body and spread (metastasize) to the brain.


The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood in order to function properly. A blockage, interruption or severe reduction in the supply of blood to the brain can result in a condition called a stroke.


Hydrocephalus is a condition characterized by excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in and around the brain which can lead to brain damage. The condition can also cause developmental, physical and intellectual impairments.

  • American Medical Association
  • American College of Osteopathic Surgeons
  • American Osteopathic Association
  • North American Spine